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Wb3 te6 Ecl Besides, the com puter claims that MS ! After the text Black holds the crit Let's ponderoverthis position. White 5. Anand - Adams cannot castle short since That reduces his options down to long castling, but then the extra pawn will be of no significance since the kings will be on stake: We4 Instead I recommend: More provocative is Wc2 li:la6 when In a later game Kovalenko chose Ms Perhaps it is better to keep the queen in the centre, e.

We5 Wcl We7 Anand demonstrates one of White's main ideas in this line ofthe English - a kingside attack exploiting the open f-file. The computers ''believe" As long as the g2-bishop is out of that the game is roughly even, but play, Black is safe. Wb3 opening. White does not risk any b6 Wa3 Even strongest players like Adams often fail to hold on in such Wes n. For instance, he must now shifted the focus to the queenside decide where to put the queen. The with We6 Wc4 a5 White preserves many attacking re Wxe6 ixe6 ! Adams takes ixc6 Wg6 ! In this line White wins the h-pawn without having to trade any piece.

The bottom line is that Black's de fence is not trivial at all. Adams' de cision might be the right approach, but he shaped it wrongly. M5, The point is that the f-file is plugged This move looks like a blunder, but by the f5-bishop and ! Appar ! Thus Black would have waiting would not be safe. After traded rooks with excellent chances the obvious It seems that Adams want For instance, Let's analyse another stand: The game is balanced, e.

This is Black's only mistake in the game. It would have fixed a possible target for Black's rooks on a2. White succeeds in transferring his passive bishop to c4 and the game is suddenly over. Black can de g6 A horrible positional mistake which Wfxf3 b6 Wff5 Wfe6 MS The material is still even, but the computer evaluates the final posi A triumph of my light-squared tion at After 6. The move 11lc3 has a stronger influ ence on the centre than tg2, but it throws White off his repertoire with 2.

As I explained in Chapter 1, in many lines the knight is not well placed on c3. The stats show that in the following sequence of moves: l. I will lems, but he lacks any target. Instead let's see how it compares to the previous two chapters if we insisit on This approach directly transposes to Chapter 1, line C, after 4. I recommend to take on d4 only in The bishop on c5 deprives White This detail forces him to exchange of ie3, lild4, so he must look for on d5 unless he wants to sac the c4- nontrivial ways of completing his pawn which gives us a nice tempo development.

Whatever he does, after This tempo consider we must aim for activity, even at the ably alters White's common plans price of a pawn, e. The immediate re h6 White cannot comfortably devel op his cl-bishop to g5 due to the hit on b2: 6. If we do not fear the pin from g5, we can find an active stand for our bishop on c5: 6. Ag2 te6 7. As you see, our retort is the same. Most of the lines may transpose to Chapter 1, line B2. In the rest of them, the placement of the knight on c3 is more likely in ourfavour be cause we can get in Ag2 d5!

Ad7 8. We can forestall it with IDb3 ib6 8. If we leave the d4-knight in piece for a while, we'll not be able to shift it later at all, e. We can meet 7. This is my standard recommenda ib4 as in Chapter 1. Enterprising al tion against lll d4. It is always good ternatives are Most of the lines may trans pose to Chaper 1, line B2. Black has full compensation for the ie7 Sxcl sa2 Instead in Yudin Zuniga-Jumabayev, Pavlodar Jumabayev, Tomsk , was The text might look as a weakness, but it drives back the e4-knight be fore it had the chance to go to d6.

An il opening strategy, but the specif lustrative line runs After 5. That is not a tragedy 7 cxd5 8. Play may continue 6. Black should not have problems to hold this position, but the lack of the dark-squared bishops deprives him of active plans: He is te6 White should not forget that 6. The same attack is pos If the knight were still on bl, White might have hoped for some edge with quick kingside development and castling.

The point is that when Black takes on c4, White can regain White cannot break through Black's the sacrificed pawn by lilbd2. In the defenceline - For instance, 9. Thus White is will be quite mobile as White can forced to let our knight to c6 with not comfortably blockade it. We should not allow White to torture us in a typical IQP po sition following Practice has seen Perhaps White should 6. Its idea is to kill the dark-squared bishop after Of course, we should keep it: n With an isolated pawn, we should aim to place our pieces on their most active places so I did not con sider Wb5 is the second most popular Jones-Edouard, London Besides, this square, as a rule, belongs to the c3- knight to chase the active c5-bish op.

In the Tarrasch White occasion ally employs the plan with g5, but connects it with the idea of forcing In the diagram po sition Black is not obliged to com ply. As a result, he preserves active pieces and excellent chances. See Grune 7 Neiksans-Kovalenko, Riga Neiksans - Kovalenko er, Tromso , ! Wfe3 Riga Therefore, we could first retreat the 1. More inter esting is: The blockading plan Black can follow the same plan as in the game - ! How A critical moment. The winning ever, Black's initiative now becomes shaping of this idea was A natural human move which guar antees Black a strong initiative.

A further attack on e2 after some Only a computer could calculate preparation , will decide the game. M4 e3 In this chapter we begin to investi We meet 4. Our next moves should be prophy lactive - we hinder White's ad White's quick development is much vance on the queenside and keep more restrictive than the slow g3. It does not leave us time to build a 7. Of course, we Let's take stock. White's play un could play He avoided sharp lines, did is not a subject of this book.

Fortu not give us a chance to double his nately, we have other ways to fight pawns, and kept control of the cen for the centre, based on In tre. Black, for his part, developed chapter 4 I analyse four rare White comfortably, but he lacks an active options while the main line 4.

He should manoeuvre care considered in Chapters 6 and 7. It would be use 4. Ei:Jd5 '1! In the light of the above examples, 4. However, we have a trump up our sleeve: I suggest It turns out that Black can fianchetto the bishop with Ei:Jf3 tg7 9. Ag5 d6! The thematic way of obtaining counterplay in this stucture is Ae2 does not seem any better - White is unable to capitalise on the Black was fine after The King's Indian structure White has a space advantage after 6. He will dam age the enemy pawn structure with It is also possible to play Still, it looks more clever to wait for e3 be- A.

After 9. We can surprise them with the the biggest flaw of doubled pawns poorly explored: - the weakness of the square before them. White is already on the de 4,.. My game Delchev-Papa, Zuerich , went on 7. Wxd3 Wd8 I used to play this move ten years Black has a wide choice. White's typical play may be illustrated with the follow ing line: The presence of the a equal That ex clear edge. More natural is: plains the popularity of The a3-pawn might hang in some lines.

In my next game I tried to improve with:. The idea is to meet It transpires that White cannot con vert the pin of the f6-knight into even the slightest advantage! Wc3 lile5 Wf4 lilh5 Black can either regain the without venom. He avoids doubled pawn, or enter a curious rook end pawns while making normal devel game after That discourages ag Wc2 hc3 Wxc3 We7 7. The most na-. Vffc2 lilxc3 9. Vffe7 Vffa4 S Nev Vfff6 Black's stand I assume that Sicil ignored - Black can revive the in this structure of course, they threat with Vffe7 to force play - should forget about the sharpest M6 Vffxf6 Black's next moves are easy - he puts his rooks on the central files and protects the b-pawn with The only question is where to put the queen Vffe7 is safe as Black's Vfff6-g6 Closing the c-file.

Romanishin is more active. Possible continua played ! Cri Vffb3 e4 We2 occurred in Laznicka-Topalov, Novy Bor Wc2 Wc2 ixc3 After ! Wc2 c5 M axb4 Wc2 Wd7 Although Black drew, I do not see any reason My recommendation keeps more to give the enemy an initiative. It is tension in the centre. More impor better to open the centre with The The text is the most logical step in pawn move preserves the bishop in that direction. Wc2 B:e8 That could be underlined with Wa4 f5 with counterplay, e.

Wb5 f4 or E1a2 Or Instead he should embark on White could repel the quen with Black can then transfer his c6-knight to g5 via d8-e6 - This is a solid approach which al 6. I suggest to meet 6. Black in Berlin , !

New In Chess #8 by New in Chess - Issuu

Criti The plan with balanced: In the next match game, Edouard Libiszewski-Postny, Bastia opted for 6.! The idea I do not see anything wrong with White's bishop does not have any the more restrained: prospects. See Game 8 Edouard Karpov, Cap d'Agde Tbe threat f4 would offer White 10 'lifxf6 Tbe pressure along the a-file binds the white pieces. Besides the a3-pawn, c4 is also weak, e. Alternatively, If we compare the two bish ops, White has played against the The central pawns on. Accordingly, I'm not sure about this move. It is his game is already more pleasant. That will face structure in the centre with The calm retreat Although he is clearly better, he lacks a clear plan how to improve further.

It is understandable that White wants to show some activity, but this move only weakens the kingside dark squares. Besides, it is a tactical mistake which both opponents fail to spot in a rapid game - White's bold play is suddenly re warded. Black would keep an extra 18 exf4? So: 10 il. Ae2 ! The knight on f3 naturally attracts the e5-pawn to go to e4. For in I'm sure your opponents will not stance, 5.

White has to spend yet an White commonly answers 5. I suggest to b-pawn while Black's play is easy remove it altogether with 5. He hits the d3-pawn. IfWhite now kingside with Ae2 d5 8. Here are several ways that lead to Ae6 Here the common equalizer is the 7. Wxd4 o-o For in stance: Play typical ly continues with 7. White displays an intention to con- s.. We should refrain from Wxc3 which we'll attack by roles and Black is already ahead castling long, and: in development - Almost everybody opts for short castling with Black stands perfectly well here, but he does not have a clear plan.

Of course, he controls the centre, but he should basically wait and try to keep the grip. It is difficult to find the best moves in such circum stances. On the opposite, White's setup is flexible and his play on the Al. See counter-attack with Finally, The position after Wecanstillcastleshortorevenleave the king in the centre - This plan is very sharp and donble-edged though.

I do not see any reason to prefer it over the text or the more tested White would lead it would be hanging. It siysk White Perhaps he should try: mnst qnickly display activity with Black saw I have also checked the Of At that point I thought ! We l4.

The above analysis suggests that It aims to open the for the f3-knight. It transpires that centre and capitalise on Black's bet stayed White's bishop on d2, The point is that would have been awkward since after Commonly, the exchange sacrifice should provide a lasting initiative, but the very clumsy placement of the el-knight reduces White's at tacking potential - The Another attempt to generate only drawback of this plan is that counterplay is Most endgames will be better Wc3 f6 Jixf3 White will evacuate his king via fl.

To be fair, the pawn attack is also suf ficient for equality - ll. Wxc4 8. Wh4 might look as an improved version ofline 1. However, the absence of a3 After Moreover, the plan with The activity of Black' s heavy pieces balances the strong enemy bishop. We can even safely allow doubled pawns on the f-file. Of course, it should be h4 It seems that b 9.

It is better to de nent adept of this line, Suba, Delchev, Albacete Even the noncommittal develop 9. Again the most straightforward move - we attack d4. M4 'l! Phoenix The radical solution The only challenging continuation M6 gxf6 ! Computer analysis proves that White has nothing more than a draw An interesting it only clamps on c5 and prepares fight is ahead.

White aims for an endgame. Georgiev successfully defends de Gaia It is unclear 10 d5 ll.

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Black could play Polgar, Wies baden , saw That He should aim to trade White does not realise that he can one of them, for instance, The rest is pathetic. Elg3 Elc5 Elg3 b5 ! EldS ElcS king closer to the enemy's poten A curious alterna tive was Elacl Elac8 Onischu k - Shirov c3;. New DelhifTeheran ElacS Black has discarded White accepts the challenge and seizes White has a small problem - he can space on the queenside. This game not trade rooks with Perhaps he should have - he arranges an exchange of the addressed it urgently with !

Elel intending Ele2. A more cunning version of this idea id3 is a step in the wrong direction. EldS Black had to decide what pawn set up to oppose against the enemy bishop pair. One possible stand was Amore active version ofitis The text is also very sharp. Shirov's novelty defines the queen's 18 8b5 A critical position.

Both sides have when Black risks to enter a slightly completed the "compulsory pro worse endgame. He should carry on gram" and it is time for heavy cal the attack with 2L. After mutual mistakes, the game was eventually drawn:. The whole variation is long and complex, starting with After the text Black's attack is more difficult to tame.

Wc5 As a playwright, he can do both tragedy and comedy — laugh and sigh — of a properly languid, drawing-room sort. Sounds awful, but directions to this effect occur in some contemporary cookbooks Also, to arabesque is to ornament or decorate; compare Sniffing the cork was once a sign of sophistication in matters oenological.

Josephine and b. Still, tell her she does.

White square domination and puzzle rush finish: GM Shirov - FM Chukavin, Sicilian defense

Also, of course, of Porter Also, batty: blind or going blind, crazy The epickthalamorous! Toadstools see next entry are sometimes poison. Also, again with incomplete documentation: a shot bottle could be a vessel for containing shotgun shot. Note: Dublin had and has no subway system. See note to 4. As there, the action described is the spread of a rumor. Spare, woodmann, spare! Also of malfeasance: they are being truant in their duties.

Again, coinciding contraries On the other hand, temperance gatherings typically made a point of serving drinks of non-alcoholic fruit juice see note to All in all, a proper bit, this, of some Joycean sliding figure-ground cache-cache. In both pairings, depravity corresponds with delicacy — again, coinciding contraries. Performers on wind instruments purse their mouths to play. Other possible resemblances: a liberty tree Seven a week would, accordingly, amount to total prohibition.

Here seems to indicate a difficulty in telling the two apart, due to the fog. Made of asbestos and, before that, literally of iron, safety curtains were very heavy. They were typically dropped either at the beginning of a show or at intermission. For it to be paper but nonetheless pageless — leafless — seems odd, but the conceit returns on the last page, when FW is about to lose its last leaf Because Atlas holds the world up with his.

This would make some sense of his being beaten about the oxter and atlas, both of them being in the same region of the body. The oxter-atlas combination returns at So, fine, but why two satins? See also Also a name for various ferocious fish, real and imagined though never, apparently sharks ; perhaps pertinent that the Howth St.

The interpreter seems to be quarrelsome person, reading through with blue pen in hand — either a pedagogue or an editor. A Hara seems like a pretty negligible vessel for all this multiplication of selves, but then so did Leopold Bloom. See next item. Goes with reincarnation theme. Soldier of Christ? Just a guess. Also, of course, toast is often served at tea time. Also, bearskin coats were worn by some members of the Russian army. Earliest Google Books appearance, in , makes it clear the expression was in circulation before that date.

Also, Finn It is a high-gloss fabric made of wool and other material. Google Images shows that they were large and sturdy enough to sit on; one domestic-arts journal suggests covering one with cloth and using it as a chair in the parlor. Joyce is parsimonious with his commas. Audience request at leg show: please lift the skirt higher above the knee.

Also, the single voice of the master , at the microphone, will now blot out and replace the recent babble of foreign tongues. In any case. HCE is the one with the big belly.

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Boaters were white. Long shot: perhaps his included a band or ribbon. XVI, number December 15, , pp. Baring-Gould, Many English considered him simply an agitator. Background: Tell the time. We may be lost, but the heavens can still guide us; see next entry. Blackthorns are proverbially used by Irish as weapons. Brief exposure. At the time, that required sitting still for a considerable period. In my calculation, the number of his years is fifty-six.

Incorporates liturgical life of Christ — born at Christmastide amidst holly and ivy, welcomed as messiah into Jerusalem traditional pictures show palm leaves being waved as well as cast down in his path then killed as the Lamb of God, on Passover, ordained day of lamb-killing. Griding: grating. Most seem to have been executed or ritually sacrificed. In sense of theatre critic giving career-ending bad review — e. Not the only place in FW that teases its readers Kevin of Glendalough or an indigent dustman : leathery liver, stiffened horsehair, stinking steak, cat pie. Words forced out between pantings from exercise Also, a cub is a newborn wolf.

Also, mangoes are common in India and far east. Probably pertinent that lightning strikes trees. Presumably the signature of the telegram You are too old. Walt Meagher. Here he is told to pull up his pants Merchant sailor, in the merchant marine. Anticipates sailor — tailor conflict of II.

Perhaps prompted by allusion to Trieste This is definitely the case at I remember the word in this sense from my college days. Certainly seems to apply to the character in question. Seems to work in the context. In any case, the sound of the Portrait pandybat is impressively loud. Note motif at. All in all, the odds of sexual innuendo here seem high, especially given the context.

Usually represented as an old man, he lived to The cook peels and pounds the ginger root to release the flavor. Miss Mackenzie is a novel by Anthony Trollope, a presence in FW mainly by way of his position in the British postal service. Given that they were lifted by hydrogen or helium, and that the latter shows up at General sense of the sentence is that either of the girls could have done it.

Also, give and take What Othello calls Desdemona. Also, Asia Minor Will be followed by an 11 at Americans were known for being rich and throwing money around. A good deal of the language on this page is American or American-ish. Again, this would have had American midwest overtones.

Also, heeltaps — lees of wine at bottom of glass In the context, would certainly be an insult Traditionally such niceties were maintained in duels and challenges to duels. A bit ironic, since Jesus, as Ichthus , was in a way a fish god. In other words, up hill and down dale Also, tinnitus Here, his liver may be in fair shape, but everything else about him is pretty marginal. Klang associations are everpresent. Another distinguishing feature of this chapter: its high incidence of American allusions and expressions.

Also invites glass-breaking from Catholic populace. A major theme in this chapter Such prelapsarian beings would be innocent of the damnation that went with the fall — in that sense pre-damned. On the other hand, Pre-Adamites were heretics, therefore damned. Yet another coinciding contrary Arion may be mentioned at A weak echo, but it fits the sense.

In cartoons, movies, etc. In which case it could be the message in the bottle, or the scripture in a mezuzah. Surely sexual. Mutual masturbation: see previous entry and note. Pace Again, Rhine gold see Also, since beard styles change with other fashions, they might serve as indicators of the period. Also, at sixteen to nine, hour hand and minute hand would be in almost exactly the same location.

Complication: some perfectly healthy trees naturally come with — one more time — rough bark. Good buy! Cheap beer! Goodbye, Mister Cheap-beer. See above entry and note. Beginning of a list of bric-a-brac. John K. Pub owners combined the running of the pub with a grocery, hardware or other ancillary business on the same premises in some cases, publicans also acted as undertakers, and this unusual combination is still common today in the Republic of Ireland. Spirit groceries continued to operate through World War One when British law limited the number of hours that pubs could operate.

Some spirit groceries continued after the war, only closing in the s when supermarkets and grocery chain stores arrived. For passages suggesting that HCE is simultaneously publican and in the sense given above grocer, see I think the origin of this is the sound of customers pounding on the pub door to be let in — another assault from outside. Union soldiers wore blue.

Also, blooming skin glowing healthily and pallid the opposite Fits black-vs-white variations in this section Many combatants have asserted as much, of course, certainly including the United States, during the Civil War and in every one of its wars for the next hundred or so years. The Black Bottom fad began as an African-American dance. Whig colors are buff and blue, not red. According to Richard D. Joyce would have concurred: that women outlive men — that, as here, widows far outnumber widowers — is a recurring theme.

Incendiary Viking invaders menacing sacred manuscripts see McHugh would be followers of Thor, with burning brands in their hands.


Same for the parents. A parallel kind of oak-worship puts Druids into the picture as well. In any case, as noted above, the priesthood being described begins with tree worship. Priestcraft — brand-waving thunder-interpreters — precedes statecraft. Also, Glasheen cites this as referring to Lillian Gish, popular film ingenue of the silent era. May be pertinent that Lillian often costarred with her sister Dorothy; Issy is usually one of a pair of girls.

The trip from the center of Dublin to the Chapelizod stop would be about three miles. Here, those two go together: big shots get to parade around only if the proles do the dirty work first. Also, the hemispheres of the brain. Shem and Shaun, corresponding respectively to the left-handed and right-handed sides of their father, may similarly divide up his brain: at More about the highwaymen Except for the pipe, from an earlier chapter, the items just listed will be noted in their order of appearance, beginning with the next entry.

A Tipperary native, by contrast, would likely be a bumpkin, at the other extreme of the hierarchy; that they are both turnips makes this a case of equal-opposites. Pederasty theme Also, wrestlers sometimes take mutual timeouts — pauses — to catch their breath. To further confuse matters, the Irish currency I first encountered was clearly taking English currency as a prototype — Irish pounds had the same size and shape as the British equivalent — even while the rate of exchange might vary significantly.

That the coins are a mixture of old English and new Irish obviously pertains to the political overtones at work here. Webleys were the standard service revolvers of the British military; in they were the weapons of the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries. Perhaps pertinent that Woden was the equally fearsome English Odin.

Not exactly wrong, surely. A distinctive kind of chamber used in sewage disposal; 2. A nationalistic term for Teutonic toughness Always or almost always associated with the twins. In some traditions, a Joyce was the originator. Widely worn in see next entry the Levant. Moscow and Mecca , of course, would also be to the east. Famously the war see Also, positive proof Also, the expression behind this: beating a dead horse.

But why would purchasing such an item be unlawful? Or, has he stolen it? No idea what it was Given naval strain, perhaps also an allusion to the Pacific; the Atlantic appears at. Yet again, see Also compare The sense here is that even if the defecation is in the easternmost part of the city, the winds will — alas! Working out ancient-vs. As the accused, he was involved in a notorious court case. Do pigs ever eat sties?

Goats are legendarily omnivorous — cartoons routinely represent them chewing on tin cans and such — but pigs? Also, see On the other hand, a flat round hat would signify a Protestant, not Catholic, cleric. Also, painters mix their paints on their palettes. Cattlemen vs. As usual, the pattern and the indictment may be reversed. And, of course, injustice In addition to grasshopper and ant, possible overtone of fox and geese, another set of natural animal-kingdom enemies. It was therefore, according to the definition, a widowed moon. Answers of. The omission may be in line with evolutionary theory: cellular life begins with touch; other senses follow.

And tactility does put in an appearance at Also, and contrarily, flowery airs — an over-nice, dandyish manner Also, perhaps, treacherous. He is best known for the unusual and increasingly eccentric names that he chose for his numerous children. Also, date and scene: time and place. Echoes lines Vergilius Maro: Vergil Myles Joyce spoke only Gaelic, did not understand the English-language indictment.

Logic: presumably 1. Here, he is setting the odds at defiance. Whatever was deposed see McHugh entry by that nefarious Earwicker: compare Among other things, a firestone is a flintstone, used to start fires, apposite for this republican incendiary. Attempting to be: the defiance will soon leak away.

All in all, an obvious instance of protesting too much. Roman Catholics make the sign of the cross from up to down to left to right.


He was, on For non-American readers: in baseball, a pitcher will gyrate his body before fixing it in position before releasing the ball. The bad news is, thus establishing him as the one to be sacrificed. See next three entries. For me! An obscure 5th century saint of Brittany, in some accounts said to have evangelized Ireland. Variants of name include Drystan, Dunstan, and Drosten. His feast day, which he shares with Saint Dunstan, is May The Illustrated London News picture of Delaney on trial shows nothing resembling a blank patch or, for that matter, a tunic.

Also, tanneries were famously foul-smelling. These and other elements indicate the not-very-subliminal presence of Shem. Long shot: the cage-like goal frame the goalie guards may suggest a barred jail cell. Also, overtone of: charity ball Probably not As for that tombstone: as Fritz Senn has remarked, everything ever written about James Joyce, from birth certificate on, contains at least one error.

Tales of the bench and assizes and annals of the bluecoat school. I sentenced him to ten years. I suppose he'd turn up his nose at that stuff I drank. Vintage wine for them, the year marked on a dusty bottle. Of the four, Ulster has by far the heaviest concentration of citizens of Scottish descent, which probably accounts for the tags from Robert Burns. The usual FW pattern of succession, as here, is up Ulster — down Munster — left Leinster — right Connacht , the order in which Roman Catholics cross themselves.

However, at the same time Virginia was declared a "crown colony. While the House of Burgesses was still allowed to run the government, the king also appointed a royal governor to settle disputes and enforce certain British policies. On October 12, a lookout cried out that he had sighted land. The crew set foot on an island that day, naming it San Salvador. It is unknown which exact island was discovered by Columbus. Note that the island presently called San Salvador is so-called in honor of Columbus' discovery; it is not necessarily the one on which Columbus set foot.

The Native Americans inhabiting the islands were described as "Indians" by Columbus, who had believed that he had discovered the East Indies modern Indonesia. In reality, he had found an island in the Caribbean. He continued to explore the area, returning to Spain.

Columbus' misconception that he found Asia was corrected years later by the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, after whom America may be named. In Europe, the power of the Pope and the influence of Catholicism was undoubted. The Catholic religion affected every aspect of politics on the continent. However, in the sixteenth century, the conditions were ripe for reform. Gutenberg's printing press made the spread of ideas much easier.

The influence of nationalism grew, and rulers began to resent the power possessed by the Pope. The Protestant movement may have commenced earlier, but the publication of Ninety-Five Theses by Martin Luther in spurred on the revolution within the Church. Luther attacked the Church's theology, which, he believed, misrepresented The Bible and placed too much authority in the hands of the clergy, and wished to reform the Church. After being excommunicated, Luther published many books on Reform. Luther's works were most influential in Germany and Scandinavia.

Persons other than Luther championed the cause of Reform. In Switzerland, Huldreich Zwingli advanced Protestant ideas, which mostly affected his home country. English Protestantism resulted from the direct influence of the British monarch. Henry VIII sought to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, because she had failed to produce a viable male heir to the throne. When his divorce led to excommunication by the Pope, Henry simply declared the entire country free of Catholic domination and a bastion of Protestantism.

Henry reasoned that England could survive under its own religious regulation Anglican and he named himself head of the church. Edward's death led to the ascension of Henry's daughter by Catherine, Mary I A staunch Catholic, Mary sought to return England back to the Catholic church. Her religious zeal and persecution of Protestants earned her the nickname, "Bloody Mary.

Elizabeth I was the daughter of Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn. Her ascendency to the throne resulted when neither of her half siblings, Edward and Mary, produced an heir to the throne. Under her siblings' reign, the nation constantly battled religious fervor as it sought to identify itself as either Protestant or Catholic. He established the Church of England the precursor to the Anglican Church as the official state religion and named himself, not the Pope, as its head.

Under Mary, the country returned to Catholic rule. The Elizabethan Age brought stability to English government. Elizabeth sought a compromise the Elizabethan Settlement which returned England to a nation governed by Protestant theology with a Catholic ritual. Elizabeth called Parliament in to consider the Reformation Bill that re-established an independent Church of England and redefined the sacrament of communion.

Parliament also approved the Act of Supremacy, establishing ecclesiastical authority with the monarch. Elizabeth's far more important response was to stabilize the English economy following the collapse of the wool market. To respond to this economic crisis, Elizabeth used her power as monarch to shift the supply-demand curve. She expelled all non-English wool merchants from the empire.

Her government placed quotas on the amount of wool that could be produced while also encouraging manors to return to agricultural production. She also started trading directly with the Spanish colonies in direct violation of their tariff regulations. This maritime violation would later result in an attack on England by the Spanish Armada in Queen Elizabeth was a very popular monarch. Her people followed her in war and peace.

She remained unmarried until her death, probably through a reluctance to share any power and preferring a series of suitors. This gave her the name, the Virgin Queen, and in honor of her, a colony was named Virginia a few years after her death. In the aftermath of the Armada's overwhelming defeat and building on the development of a strong fleet started by Henry VIII, England began to gain recognition as a great naval power. Nationalism in England increased tremendously. Thoughts of becoming a colonial power were inspired. These thoughts were aided by the fact that the defeated Spanish lost both money and morale, and would be easy to oppose in the New World.

In , Richard Hakluyt proposed a strong argument for expansion of English settlement into the new world. With his Discourse Concerning Western Planting, Hakluyt argued that creating new world colonies would greatly benefit England. The colonies could easily produce raw materials that were unavailable in England. By establishing colonies, England would assure itself of a steady supply of materials that it currently purchased from other world powers. Second, inhabited colonies would provide a stable market for English manufactured goods. Finally, as the economic incentives were not enough, the colonies could provide a home for disavowed Englishmen.

The English had already begun the exploration of the New World prior to the Armada's defeat. In , Queen Elizabeth granted Sir Walter Raleigh a charter authorizing him to explore the island of Roanoke, which is part of what is now North Carolina. Between and , Raleigh financed expeditions to explore the island of Roanoke and determine if the conditions were proper for settlement. In , about a hundred men were left on the island. They struggled to survive, being reduced to eating dogs. They were, however, rescued- except for fifteen men whose fate remained a mystery.

After another expedition in , another group of men, women, and children- a total of more than one-hundred people- remained on the island. Governor John White of the Roanoke colony discovered from a local Native American tribe that the fifteen men who were not rescued were killed by a rival tribe. While attempting to gain revenge, White's men killed members of a friendly tribe and not the members of the tribe that allegedly killed the fifteen men.

Having thus strained relations with the Natives, the settlers could not survive easily. John White decided to return to England in and return with more supplies. When he returned, England faced war against Spain. Thus delayed, White could not return to Roanoke until When he did return, White discovered that Roanoke was abandoned. All that gave clue to the fate of the colony was the word Croatan, the name of a nearby Native American tribe, carved out on to a tree.

No attempt was made to discover the actual cause of the disappearance until several years later. There are only theories as to the cause of the loss of Roanoke. There are two major possibilities. Firstly, the settlers may have been killed by the Natives. Second, the settlers may have assimilated themselves into the Native tribes.

But there is no evidence that settles the matter beyond doubt. Remember to properly cite any sources used. The islands of Great Britain changed greatly in the Renaissance, resulting in the Church of England, the British Civil War, and total transformation of economic, political, and legal systems. Yet through this time, despite pressure from other nations and America's own Natives, a diverse set of English colonies were planted and thrived.

These new colonies were funded in three different ways. In one plan, corporate colonies were established by joint stock companies. A joint stock company was a project in which people would invest shares of stock into building a new colony. Depending on the success of the colony, each investor would receive profit based on the shares he had bought. This investment was less risky than starting a colony from scratch, and each investor influenced how the colony was run. These investors often elected their own public officials.

An example of a joint stock company on another continent was the British East India Company. Virginia was settled in this way. Proprietary colonies were owned by a person or family who made laws and appointed officials as he or they pleased. Development was often a direct result of this ownership. Penn's new colony gave refuge to Quakers, a group of millennial Protestants who opposed the Church of England. Quakers did not have ministers and did not hold to civil or religious inequality, making them a dangerous element in hierarchical societies.

Penn was an outspoken Quaker and had written many pamphlets defending the Quaker faith. He also invited settlers from other countries and other Protestant minorities, and even some Catholics. Finally, royal colonies were under the direct control of the King, who appointed a Royal Governor. The resulting settlement was not always identical to England. For example, England had broken with Catholicism during the reign of Henry the Eighth, and the Old Faith was seen not only as religious heresy but the prelude to domination by other countries.

Yet Maryland's grant of toleration of Catholics was granted as a boon from the British Crown. In , Lord Baltimore appointed George Calvert of England to settle a narrow strip of land north of Virginia and south of Pennsylvania as a Catholic colony via a royal charter. Fifteen years later, in , he signed the Act of Toleration, which proclaimed religious freedom for its colonists.

Despite the original charter, Protestants later became the majority faith. After Lord Baltimore's death several years later, Margaret Brent, the wife of an esteemed landowner in Maryland, executed his will as governor of the colony. She defied gender roles in the colonies by being the first woman of non-royal heritage to govern an English colony. The Massachusetts Bay Colony , another corporate colony, was founded as a place far from England where its religious dissenters could live.

The Puritans, a group of radical Protestants who wanted what they called a return to the faith of the Bible, suffered torture and execution because they disagreed with the official Church of England. In , forty-one Puritans who called themselves Pilgrims sailed for the new world. Their own contemporary accounts show that the Pilgrims originally intended to settle the Hudson River region near present day Long Island, New York. Once Cape Cod was sighted, they turned south to head for the Hudson River, but encountered treacherous seas and nearly shipwrecked.

They then decided to return to Cape Cod rather than risk another attempt to head south. After weeks of scouting for a suitable settlement area, the Mayflower's passengers finally landed at Plymouth in present-day Massachusetts on December 26, They called it Massachusetts after the name of the Indian tribe then living there. William Bradford, who was selected as a governor after the death of John Carver, wrote a journal that helps us to better understand the hardships colonists endured, encounters with the Native Americans, and ultimately, the success of the colony.

The Pilgrims agreed to govern themselves in the manner set forth in the Mayflower Compact, which signed on the Pilgrims' ship, The Mayflower. After two years they abandoned the communal form of partnership begun under the Compact and in assigned individual plots of land to each family to work.

The colony of Plymouth was eventually absorbed by Massachusetts Bay, but it remained separate until A large group of Pilgrims later migrated to the new colony of Massachusetts Bay. In keeping with its mother Church of England, the colony did not provide religious freedom. It only allowed male Puritans the right to vote, established Puritanism as the official religion of the colony in The Act of Toleration, and punished people who did not go to their Church. Other countries used the joint-stock company to fund exploration.

In , the Dutch East India company discovered a territory on the eastern coast of North America, from latitude 38 to 45 degrees north. Adriaen Block and Hendrick Christiaensz explored the territory from until In March of the States General, the governing body of the Netherlands, proclaimed exclusive patent for trade in the New World. The States General issued patents for development of New Netherland as a private commercial venture.

Nassau was swiftly built in the area of present day Albany to defend river traffic and to trade with Native Americans. New Netherland became a province of the Dutch Republic in The northern border was then reduced to 42 degrees north, as the English had encroached north of Cape Cod. According to the Law of Nations, a claim on a territory required not only discovery and charting but settlement.

In the next few decades incompetent directors-general ran New Netherland. The settlers were attacked by Native Americans, and British and Dutch conflicts seemed destined to destroy the colony. All that changed when Peter Stuyvesant was appointed Director-General in As he arrived he said, "I shall govern you as a father his children". He expanded the colony's borders. He oversaw conquest of the one settlement of northernmost Europe, New Sweden, in He resolved the border dispute with New England in He improved defenses against Native American raids, and the population of the colony went from in to 9, by But in August of , four English warships arrived in New York Harbor demanding the surrender of the colony.

At first, Stuyvesant vowed to fight, but there was little ammunition and gunpowder. He received weak support from the overwhelmed colonists, and was forced to surrender. In an attempt to gain supremacy over trade, the English waged war against the Dutch in The territory of Carolina, named after the British King Charles I, was granted as a proprietary colony to eight different nobles. Four colonies were formed by division from already extant larger territories.

Sir George had come from the Isle of Jersey, and the new colony was named accordingly. Another portion of the territory became the crown colony Connecticut. This colony was also named for its native tribe of Indians. A corner of Pennsylvania which was not peopled by Quakers separated in to become the colony of Delaware. Rhode Island was a unique experiment in religious and political freedom. Massachusetts banished Roger Williams after he began asserting that Jesus Christ meant for the Church to be separate from the governing authority.

This dissenter from the Church of England, and then from the Puritans, became the first American Baptist. After many adventures in other colonies, he bought land from the Narragansett Indians for a new settlement. Providence was meant to be a colony free from religious entanglements and a refuge for people of conscience. He was later followed by Anne Hutchinson. She had outraged Boston divines because she was a woman who preached, and because she believed that one's works were not always tied to grace, unlike the Puritans.

She also bought land from the Indians. On this was the settlement subsequently named Portsmouth, and afterward a dissident sister town, Newport. The colony was partially based upon Aquidneck Island, later called Rhode Island for unknown reasons, and the entire establishment eventually took its name from that place.

Georgia was another proprietary colony, named after King George I, with a charter granted to James Oglethorpe and others in It was intended as a "buffer" colony to protect the others from attacks from the Florida Spanish and the Louisiana French. Because of this, Georgia was the only colony to receive funds from the Crown from its founding. The laws in Great Britain put people in prison for debt. Many of these people were shipped from overcrowded jails to freedom in the wilds of Georgia colony.

America was already seen as a land of prosperity, and Oglethorpe hoped that the ex-prisoners would soon become honest and rich. However, few of the prisoners of London jails knew how to survive in the new wilderness. Sometimes the Carolinas and Georgia are counted as separate from the Chesapeake Colonies. Each group had geographic and economic characteristics.

New England's rocky soil only encouraged small farms, and its agricultural opportunities were limited. Thus it focused on fishing, forestry, shipping, and small industry to make money. Richer land in the Southern colonies was taken over by individual farmers who grasped acreage. This created large plantation farms that grew tobacco, and later cotton. Farms in the Carolinas also farmed sugar, rice, and indigo. In the 17th century, these were farmed by indentured servants, people who would work for a period of years in return for passage to America and land.

Many of these servants died before their indentures ended. A group of indentured servants rose up in Bacon's Rebellion in After Bacon's Rebellion, plantations began using African slaves instead. Even after release from indenture, many of these white people remained in the economic lower classes, though not subject to the slave codes, which became more harsh as time passed, denying almost all liberty to slaves in the southern colonies. By the American Revolution, one in five colonists was an African slave. And the products produced by slavery in the South were consumed and traded by towns in the Middle Colonies and New England.

Few people questioned the slave economy. The Middle Colonies had medium-sized farms. These colonies also had people from many different cultures with many different beliefs. Individuals in these states used indentured servants, and later slaves, but there was not the concentration of masses of slave labor found in the Southern colonies. Another distinction lies in religious practices. New England was mostly Congregationalist, with some admixture of Presbyterian congregations and the religious non-conformists who called themselves Baptists.

These were all descendants of dissenters before and during the British Civil War. The South was mostly Anglican, cherishing religious and secular traditions and holidays. The Middle Colonies held small groups of people from Holland, German lands, and even Bohemia, and they brought a welter of Catholic and Protestant faiths. Among the whites sent to the colonies by English authorities were many Scots-Irish people from Ulster.

These had been Calvinist Protestants in the middle of a Irish Catholic majority, at odds both with them and with England. This minority settled in the frontier region of the Appalachian Mountains and eventually beyond in the Ohio and Mississippi country. In America their desire for land and freedom pushed the colonial boundary westward at little cost to the government, and provided an armed buffer between the eastern settlements and Native American tribes which had been driven away from the seaboard.

Colonial frontiersmen endured a very harsh life, building their towns and farms by hand in a dense wilderness amid economic deprivation and native attack. Each colony developed its own areas of edification and amusement, depending upon the local faith and the local capacities. The culture of the South recorded early interest in musical theater, with Charleston, South Carolina and Williamsburg, Virginia as hubs of musical activity.

And preachers, lecturers, and singers entertained the colonists. Their commonalities were stronger than their differences. All three regions shared a population mostly derived from the British Isles. All had terrible roads, and all had connections to the Atlantic Ocean as a means of transportation. And all were tied to the Atlantic economy. Atlantic merchants used ships to trade slaves, tobacco, rum, sugar, gold, silver, spices, fish, lumber, and manufactured goods between America, the West Indies, Europe and Africa.

The first wave of colonists used hand labor to cultivate their farms, and established such land-based crafts such as pottery and tanning. As later ships brought cattle and horses, draft animals became part of the economy. Indentured servants, and then slaves kidnapped from Africa, were imported. This was when larger plantations began to be founded.

In the latter part of the eighteenth century small-scale machine-based manufacturing began to appear. Individuals started to dig for coal and iron ore. New England used the latter to begin making building tools and horseshoes. A new textile industry arose, dependent in part upon Southern cotton. Powered by wood or coal and fed by the need for strong metal, household forges pioneered new techniques of iron-making.

The blacksmith and the tinsmith became part of large settlements. Colonies started making mechanized clocks, guns, and lead type for printing. The American colonies, entirely new societies separated by an ocean from Great Britain, believed they had the right to govern themselves. This belief was encouraged by Great Britain's Glorious Revolution and Bill of Rights, which gave Parliament the ultimate authority in government.

A policy of relatively lax controls or Salutary Neglect ended in increased British regulation resulting from the policy of mercantilism, and seen through the Lords of Trade and the later Navigation Acts. Parliament placed controls on colonial trade in obedience to the economic policy of mercantilism. This was the idea that a nation's economic power depended on the value of its exports.

A country could use its colonies to create finished goods, rather than raw materials. These could be traded to other countries, thus increasing the strength of the colonizing nation. This policy had been put forth by a Frenchman named Jean-Baptiste Colbert. It seemed tailor-made for Great Britain. Spain had American gold as its economic base, and France had American furs. England had neither of these. But it had American cotton, molasses, and tobacco, as well as its state-of-the-art ships. Prior to the mid's, the colonies had enjoyed a long period of "salutary neglect", where the British largely let the colonies govern themselves.

This now ended. The Lords of Trade attempted to affect the government of the colonies in a manner beneficial to the English, rather than to the colonists. The Lords of Trade attempted to convert all American colonies to royal ones so that the Crown could gain more power. However, the Dominion only lasted a brief time.

James was overthrown he was technically held abdicated by Parliament in the bloodless Glorious Revolution of However, the British Parliament actually held the power. The Dominion of New England was dissolved, the various separate colonies were reestablished, and the Lords of Trade were abandoned replaced by a Board of Trade, a purely advisory body. Beginning in , the Parliament of England passed the Navigation Acts to increase its benefit from its colonies.

The Acts required that any colonial imports or exports travel only on ships registered in England, meaning that only England could have the shipping power and the fees derived from them. They forbid the colonies to export tobacco and sugar to any nation other than England. Tobacco was then used as medicine, and sugar was used to make alcohol, also a medicine.

And the colonies could not import anything manufactured outside England unless the goods were first taken to England, where taxes were paid, and then to the colonies. In the s, The Sugar Act established a tax of six pence per gallon of sugar or molasses imported into the colonies. By , Parliament had begun to ban, restrict, or tax several more products. It tried to curtail all manufacture in the colonies. This provoked much anger among the colonists, despite the fact that their tax burdens were quite low, when compared to most subjects of European monarchies of the same period.

Colonists hated the Navigation Acts because they believed they would be more prosperous and rich if they could trade on their own behalf. They also believed that some vital resources would not be found in Britain. Today, the area where the Indians of all the Great Plains lived is located from the Rocky mountains to the Mississippi River. During the s, there were about 30 tribes that lived on the Great Plains. These tribes tended to rely on buffalo as their food source as well as other daily needs, such as clothing.

Not only did Indians, specifically women, make their clothing out of buffalo, but also out of deer. Women would soak the deer or buffalo and scrape off the hair of the dead animal. Also, Indian tribes traded with one another. The number of horses an individual owned was a sign of wealth; Indians would trade their horses for food, tools, weapons such as guns , and hides. Since the tribes spoke many different languages from one another, they had to use sign language to be able to trade with each other.

A riot broke out on election day in Philadelphia in as a result of the Anglican population disagreeing with the Quaker majority. The riot stemmed over a power struggle between the Anglican and Quaker population. The Quakers had a history of political dominance over Philadelphia. The German population backed the Quaker vote because of the Quaker Pacifism which would protect from higher taxes and ultimately the draft. On election day, the Anglicans and sailors fought with the Quakers and Germans. The Quakers were able to seek shelter in the courthouse and complete the election.

The Anglican party lost the election and 54 sailors were jailed following the riot. As the three sections of the colonies through the s were made up of people with different interests, they provided differing sorts of education for their children. Although there were commonalities -- a rich family in any of the three regions might send a son to Europe for his education -- people in different colonies tended to educate in differing ways.

New England's motives for education were both civil and religious. The good citizen had to know his or her Bible. The Massachusetts General School Law of stated that if more than 50 families lived in a community, a schoolteacher must be hired. This law gave a justification: "It being one chief project of that old deluder, Satan, to keep men from the knowledge of the Scriptures, as in former times by keeping them in an unknown tongue, so in these latter times by persuading from the use of tongues, that so that at least the true sense and meaning of the original might be clouded and corrupted with love and false glosses of saint-seeming deceivers; and to the end that learning may not be buried in the grave of our forefathers, in church and commonwealth, the Lord assisting our endeavors.

Both boys and girls were often taught to read the Bible by their parents, perhaps with the aid of a horn book, an alphabet and syllabary page covered by a protective layer of horn. In addition to being able to read the Bible, a Christian ought to be able to govern in his society. His society: for government was the province of godly, property-holding men, rather than women.

To obtain this youths had to gain a classical education -- that is, one based thoroughly on Latin. The law was the beginning of the American grammar school, which initially taught Latin, but later included practical subjects such as navigation, engineering, bookkeeping, and foreign languages. It had a rigorous education, and as a result, few students. Harvard was the first university in America, founded in and originally intended to teach Protestant clergy. Because of the small number of people graduating from the classical curriculum, attendance was low. Some people jumped directly from the classical curriculum to the University, sometimes entering Harvard as young as 14 or 15 years old.

Cotton Mather graduated Harvard at 15, an exception only because of his extreme precocity. In private schools, boys and girls learned penmanship, basic Math, and reading and writing English. These fed the various trades, where older children were apprenticed.

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Girls who did not become servants were often trained for domestic life, learning needlework, cooking, and the several days-long task of cleaning clothes. Like New England, the Middle Colonies had private schools which educated children in reading and writing. However, the basics were rarer. The further west one lived, the less likely one was to be able to go to school, or to read and write at all. Ethnic and religious sub-groups would have their own private schools, which taught their own children their own folk-ways.

In none of the colonies was higher education certain. Secondary schools were very rare outside of such major towns as Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. The Chesapeake experience was different again. Children could only could only read and write if their parents could. Children in wealthy families would study with private tutors. Though wealthy girls might learn 'the womanly arts,' they would not have the same curriculum as their brothers. Martha Washington's granddaughter Eliza Custis was laughed at by her stepfather when "[I] thought it hard they would not teach me Greek and Latin because I was a girl -- they laughed and said women ought not to know those things, and mending, writing, Arithmetic, and Music was all I could be permitted to acquire.

The literacy rates were lower in the South than the North until about the 19th century. As the 18th century wore on, it specialized not in theology for clergymen but in law. These were later joined by several other universities, including Princeton in In the 18th century, astronomy, physics, modern history and politics took a bigger place in the college curriculum.

Some colleges experimented with admitting Native American students in the 18th century, though not African-Americans. It was the first book written in the new world. Sometime after the first New England Primer was published as an aid to childhood reading and spelling. An alternative to the classical curriculum emerged in Benjamin Franklin's American Academy, founded in Philadelphia in This body represented something closer to the modern American high school, offering vocational education.

This sort of school later outnumbered the classical secondary school. However, Franklin's Academy was private as well, making such learning open only to those who could afford it. During this period colonists attempted to convert Native Americans to Christianity. In which of the three areas is it located? Why and how was it initially colonized? How did its immigrants and the religions they adhered to affect it? The name refers to the two main enemies of the British, the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. This conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the kingdoms of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of all of New France east of the Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida.

France ceded control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi to its Spanish ally, to compensate it for its loss of Florida. By the end of this war France kept only the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon north of the Caribbean. These colonies today still allow France access to the Grand Banks. The "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in to the signing of the peace treaty in These dates do not correspond with the actual fighting in North America, where the fighting between the two colonial powers was largely concluded in six years, from the Jumonville Glen skirmish in to the capture of Montreal in Elsewhere the conflict is known by several names.

Because there had already been a King George's War in the s, British colonists named the second war in King George's reign after their opponents, and thus it became known as the French and Indian War. This war was also known as the Forgotten War. One cause for the conflict was territorial expansion. Newfoundland's Grand Banks were fertile fishing grounds and coveted by both sides.

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Both sides also wanted to expand their territories for trapping furs to trade, and for other pursuits that aided their economic interests. English claims resulted from royal grants with no definite western boundaries. Both Great Britain and France took advantage of Native American factions to secure these claims, to protect their territories, and to keep the other from growing too strong.