As he explains in a foreword to his book, the narrative was composed with the help of his field notes from the war. As a result, there is a specificity and level of detail that is unmatched in any other narrative from the conflict. EKR: Some native readers and scholars of Native American history have faulted you for not consulting modern-day native oral traditions to counter the racist biases contained in seventeenth-century English sources.
How did you approach what you knew would be a problem with the inevitable biases in the sources you were using? While working on that book, I consulted Wampanoags throughout southeastern Massachusetts, in particular the late Russell Gardner, who was then the Wampanoag tribal historian. That experience gave me a deep appreciation for the one-sided nature of the documentary record. I also came to realize that oral traditions inevitably evolve to reflect the times and needs of each generation, and in Mayflower I was writing about events that had occurred almost 20 generations or four hundred years ago.
From the start I decided to base my book on the written record, but I also resolved to pay special attention to contemporaneous written accounts that were more likely to reveal a native perspective. I also looked to Wampanoag oral traditions that had been recorded in the 17 th and 18 th centuries, as well as to archeological evidence. Mayflower is about the interaction of two very different peoples, and I have attempted to balance both perspectives. There is no doubt that you are revising the Pilgrim story those of us over 30 learned in school, but is there a sense in which you may have reinforced the notion, embedded in the old-fashioned telling, that the Wampanoags suffered defeat, and near extinction, because they failed to accept what the English were offering them?
I think both versions are oversimplifications that do not pay proper attention to the impact that individuals, English and especially native, had on the course of events in Plymouth Colony. Constitution in utero. In reality, it did nothing to change the form of government any of the Mayflower passengers had known back in England. What the compact did do was address an ever-widening divide among the passengers.
To prevent this, to pull this already divided group together, they drafted and signed the Mayflower Compact, in which both Leideners and Strangers agreed to submit to the laws enacted by their duly elected civil officials. For the Puritan separatists, who had come to define themselves as a people apart, this was an important acknowledgment that others must be accommodated if they were to have any hope of survival. The compact was a critical first step in making the future success of the settlement possible.
Most of the Springfielders who escaped unharmed took cover at the house of Miles Morgan , a resident who had constructed one of the settlement's few fortified blockhouses. Morgan's sons were famous Indian fighters in the territory. His son Peletiah was killed by Indians in Springfielders later honored Miles Morgan with a large statue in Court Square. On November 2, Plymouth Colony governor Josiah Winslow led a combined force of colonial militia against the Narragansett tribe. The Narragansetts had not been directly involved in the war, but they had sheltered many of the Wampanoag fighters, women, and children.
Some of their warriors had participated in several Indian attacks.
The colonists distrusted the tribe and did not understand the various alliances. As the colonial forces went through Rhode Island, they found and burned several Indian towns which had been abandoned by the Narragansetts, who had retreated to a massive fort in a frozen swamp. The cold weather in December froze the swamp so that it was relatively easy to traverse. The colonial force found the Narragansett fort on December 19, near present-day South Kingstown, Rhode Island ; they attacked in a combined force of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Connecticut militia numbering about 1, men, including about Pequots and Mohican Indian allies.
The fierce battle that followed is known as the Great Swamp Fight. It is believed that the militia killed about Narragansetts. Most of the Narragansett warriors escaped into the frozen swamp. The colonists lost many of their officers in this assault; about 70 of their men were killed and nearly more wounded. The rest of the colonial assembled forces returned to their homes, lacking supplies for an extended campaign.
The nearby towns in Rhode Island provided care for the wounded until they could return to their homes. Over the next several months, fear of Mohawk attack led some Wampanoag to surrender to the colonists, and one historian described the decision of the Mohawk to engage Metacomet's forces as "the blow that lost the war for Philip". Indians attacked and destroyed more settlements throughout the winter of —76 in their effort to annihilate the colonists. The famous account written and published by Mary Rowlandson after the war gives a colonial captive's perspective on the conflict.
The Lancaster raid in February was an Indian attack on the community of Lancaster, Massachusetts. Philip led a force of 1, Wampanoag , Nipmuc , and Narragansett Indians in a dawn attack on the isolated village, which then included all or part of the neighboring modern communities of Bolton and Clinton. They attacked five fortified houses. The house of the Rev. Joseph Rowlandson was set on fire, and most of its occupants were slaughtered—more than 30 people. Rowlandson's wife Mary was taken prisoner, and afterward wrote a best-selling captivity narrative of her experiences.
Many of the community's other houses were destroyed before the Indians retreated northward. The spring of marked the high point for the combined tribes when they attacked Plymouth Plantation on March The town withstood the assault, but the Indians had demonstrated their ability to penetrate deep into colonial territory. They attacked three more settlements; Longmeadow near Springfield , Marlborough, and Simsbury were attacked two weeks later. They killed Captain Pierce  and a company of Massachusetts soldiers between Pawtucket and the Blackstone's settlement.
Several colonial men were tortured and buried at Nine Men's Misery in Cumberland as part of the Indians' ritual torture of enemies. They also burned the settlement of Providence to the ground on March At the same time, a small band of Indians infiltrated and burned part of Springfield while the militia was away. The settlements within the modern-day state of Rhode Island became a literal island colony for a time as the settlements at Providence and Warwick were sacked and burned, and the residents were driven to Newport and Portsmouth on Rhode Island.
The Connecticut River towns had thousands of acres of cultivated crop land known as the bread basket of New England, but they had to limit their plantings and work in large armed groups for self-protection. The small towns of Northfield , Deerfield , and several others were abandoned as the surviving settlers retreated to the larger towns.
The towns of the Connecticut colony were largely unharmed in the war, although more than Connecticut militia died in their support of the other colonies. The town was surprised by Indian raiders at dawn, but security precautions limited the damage to unoccupied homesteads. Reinforcements that arrived from nearby towns were drawn into ambushes by the Indians; Captain Samuel Wadsworth lost his life and half of a man militia in such an ambush.
Afterwards, Indians made their way through much of Sudbury, but they were held off by John Grout and a handful of men until colonial reinforcements arrived to help in the defense. On May 18, , Captain William Turner of the Massachusetts Militia and a group of about militia volunteers mostly minimally trained farmers attacked an Indian fishing camp at Peskeopscut on the Connecticut River , now called Turners Falls, Massachusetts. The colonists killed — Indians in retaliation for earlier Indian attacks against Deerfield and other settlements and for the colonial losses in the Battle of Bloody Brook.
Turner and nearly 40 of the militia were killed during the return from the falls. The colonists defeated an attack at Hadley on June 12, with the help of their Mohegan allies, scattering most of the Indian survivors into New Hampshire and farther north. Later that month, a force of Indians was routed near Marlborough, Massachusetts. Combined forces of colonial volunteers and their Indian allies continued to attack, kill, capture, or disperse bands of Narragansetts , Nipmucs , and Wampanoags as they tried to plant crops or return to their traditional locations.
The colonists granted amnesty to those who surrendered or who were captured and showed that they had not participated in the conflict. Captives who had participated in attacks on the many settlements were hanged, enslaved, or put to indentured servitude , depending upon the colony involved.
Metacomet's allies began to desert him, and more than had surrendered to the colonists by early July. Metacomet took refuge in the Assowamset Swamp below Providence, and the colonists formed raiding parties of militia and Indian allies. He was shot and killed by an Indian named John Alderman on August 12, His head was displayed in Plymouth for a generation.
He was an old man at the time, and a chief captain of Metacomet. His capture marked the final event in King Philip's War, as he was also beheaded.
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French interests in Maine originated in the fur trade and the sale of fish, both to France. The French colonies in North America were primarily interested in trade and not in creating large cities.
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Instead, they preferred to convert the Indian population to Catholicism, or else to limit their contact with the Indians to trade. As English presence increased on the southern coast of Maine, the French Jesuits paid many of the area's tribes for the scalps of Protestant or English settlers, especially the Abenaki. Two other mission towns were established, one based around Castine, Maine established by Baron de St. Castin and one on the St. Francis River between New Brunswick and Maine. The more permanent English settlers moved northward from the colony of Massachusetts Bay, most of them Puritans who were unhappy with the political climate in Massachusetts Bay.
Constant friction over many issues became the reason for many Abenaki raids in southern Maine, specifically over the issue of fishing rights for cod. Up until , however, fighting had been limited to minor skirmishes that were more about the destruction of supplies than murder. What is thought to have been the first action in Maine came when a man militia gathered at Falmouth, Maine in and sailed to an Indian village, thought to be a part of the Abenaki, with a single sloop towing shallops.
The Indians drove them off and took the shallops from them. Later that month, the tribe crossed the Saco River in the captured shallops and attacked the settlement of Winter Harbor.
Little damage was caused, and similar raids were conducted against Wells and Falmouth later that year. The ultimate cause leading to war was the ruling by the Massachusetts General Court in making it illegal to sell firearms, powder, or rounds to the area's tribes. New England tribes had grown dependent on the musket for hunting, and the English colonists' remaining Indian allies switched to the French side. The French encouraged them to raid the English settlements, due to the tension in Europe at the time. Much of the northern fighting was centered around raids meant to destroy property and infrastructure rather than to kill people.
The lack of population on both sides meant that large battles were out of the question initially. More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. Condition: As New. Size: 6 x 9. Signed by Author s. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. Published by Poppet Publications About this Item: Poppet Publications, Dust Jacket Condition: No Dustjacket. ISBN Very good to near fine condition.
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Tight, bright, attractive copy with no markings to the book. No statement of later printing on copyright page. No Signature. More information about this seller Contact this seller Published by New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Knopf, , Some even argued that the massacres and outrages on both sides were too horrific to "deserve the name of a war. The war spread quickly, pitting a loose confederation of southeastern Algonquians against a coalition of English colonists.
While it raged, colonial armies pursued enemy Indians through the swamps and woods of New England, and Indians attacked English farms and towns from Narragansett Bay to the Connecticut River Valley. Both sides, in fact, had pursued the war seemingly without restraint, killing women and children, torturing captives, and mutilating the dead.
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The fighting ended after Philip was shot, quartered, and beheaded in August The war's brutality compelled the colonists to defend themselves against accusations that they had become savages. But Jill Lepore makes clear that it was after the war--and because of it--that the boundaries between cultures, hitherto blurred, turned into rigid ones. King Philip's War became one of the most written-about wars in our history, and Lepore argues that the words strengthened and hardened feelings that, in turn, strengthened and hardened the enmity between Indians and Anglos. She shows how, as late as the nineteenth century, memories of the war were instrumental in justifying Indian removals--and how in our own century that same war has inspired Indian attempts to preserve "Indianness" as fiercely as the early settlers once struggled to preserve their Englishness.
Telling the story of what may have been the bitterest of American conflicts, and its reverberations over the centuries, Lepore has enabled us to see how the ways in which we remember past events are as important in their effect on our history as were the events themselves. Dutton, New York Dutton, New York, Hard Cover. Price, Christine illustrator. Price-clipped DJ has general rubbing, creasing to edges, fading to spine now protected.
Seller Inventory jct A crisp, clean, tightly bound soft cover copy presenting light shelf wear and indications of being gently read. From: edconroybooks Troy, NY, U. Condition: New. Stated "First Printing" on Title Page. Brand New copy. Clean, bright and very tight. No ink names, tears, chips, foxing, etc. Signed by Author. Published by Alfred A.
King Philip’s War: Indian Chieftain’s War Against the New England Colonies
Knopf, New York, New York From: Kenneth A. Himber Lebanon, NJ, U. About this Item: Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York, Condition: Almost Like New. First Edition Book is a clean tight unmarked copy.
Top page edges show slight oxidized dust spotting Foxing. Published by Dodd, Mead and Co. About this Item: Dodd, Mead and Co. Decorated Cloth. Dust Jacket Condition: None. Red decorated cloth, pp.
King Philip and Mary Rowlandson
Slightly cocked, bookplate on endpaper, slight tear on upper spine end. Nice and tight without any marks. Overall a nice copy.